Types of transformers

Types of transformers

The transformers are classified supported voltage levels, Core medium used, winding arrangements, use and installation place etc.

Transformers based on voltage levels

The transformers are classified as step-up and step-down transformers because the voltage ratios from primary to secondary. These are widely used transformer types for all the applications. Here the important thing to recollect is that there’ll not be any difference in primary power and secondary power. I.e. if the voltage is high at secondary side then the present drawn from the secondary will low in order that the facility are going to be same. Same as within the reverse case when the voltage is low the present drawn are going to be high.

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Step-up transformer

As the name specifies the secondary voltage is stepped up with a ratio compared to primary voltage. This is achieved by increasing the number of coil turns in the secondary as shown in figure.Step-Up-Transformer

In power station this transformer is employed as connecting transformer of Generator to Grid. I.e. the Generated to low voltage should be suitably stepped up to attach to high voltage grid.

Step-down transformer

In this transformer the voltage is stepped down at the secondary from high voltage primary in order that it’s called as transformer . The winding turns are going to be high at primary side where because it will less at secondary side.

In power station the utilization of this transformer are very high where the grid power supply stepped down and given to corresponding plant auxiliaries during starting of the facility plant. Once the plant has started then the voltage stepping down is important where the plant auxiliaries will operate at low voltage compared to its generated voltage.

In distribution also the step down transformer is widely wont to convert the high grid voltage to the low voltage which may be used at house purposes.

Transformer based on the core medium used

The transformers are divided as Air core and iron core under this classification. I.e. the medium placed between the first and secondary air in air core type transformer and iron in iron core type transformer.

Air core transformer

The primary and secondary winding wounded on non magnetic strip where the flux linkage between primary and secondary is through the air. The coefficient of mutual induction effect is a smaller amount in air core compared to iron core i.e. the reluctance offered to the generated flux is high within the air medium where as within the iron core it’s less. But the hysteresis and eddy current losses which are dominant in iron core type are less or completely eliminated in air core type transformer.

Iron core transformer

The two winding are wounded on iron plates which provide a perfect linkage path to the generated flux. Due to the conductive or magnetic property of the iron it offers less reluctance to the linkage flux. These are widely used transformers during which is efficiency is high compared to air core type transformer.

Auto Transformer

Normal transformers have two winding placed on two different sides i.e. primary and secondary but in auto transformer, the both the winding that is primary and secondary winding are connected to each other both physically and magnetically. There is one common winding which forms both primary and secondary coil during which voltage is varied by changing the position of secondary tapping on the body of the coil.

Read in Hindi Language- Types of Transformer

Transformer based on usage

The transformers are wont to do many functions consistent with the necessarily. These are classified as power transformer, measuring transformer, protection transformer and distribution transformer.

Power Transformer

The power transformers are big in size and used for top power transfer applications, where the transmission voltage is bigger than 33KV. It utilized in generating station and Transmission substation .high insulation level.

Distribution transformer

It is used for the distribution of electricity at low voltage as but 33KV in industrial purpose and 440v-220 v in domestic purpose. It work on low efficiency at 50-70%, small size, easy in installation, having low magnetic losses & it’s not always fully loaded.

Measurement Transformer


These are wont to measure the some electrical quantity like voltage, current etc. As their name specifies these are classified as potential transformers, current transformers etc.

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