Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the science of creating intelligent technologies and computer programs.
Artificial intelligence is closely related to the task of understanding human intelligence using computer technology. At the moment, it is impossible to say exactly which computational methods can be called intelligent. Some mechanisms of intelligence are open to understanding, others are not. At the moment, programs use methods that are not found in humans.
Artificial intelligence has a scientific direction that studies the solution to problems of human intellectual activity. Artificial intelligence is aimed at performing creative tasks in the field, the knowledge of which is stored in the intellectual system of the program – the knowledge base.
The programming mechanism — the problem solver — works with this knowledge. Then a person gets an idea of the result of the program through an intelligent interface. The result of an artificial intelligence program is to recreate intellectual reasoning or rational action.
One of the main properties of artificial intelligence is the ability to learn. First of all, this is heuristic learning – continuous learning of the program, the formation of the learning process and your own goals, analysis, and awareness of your learning.
The scientific direction of studying artificial intelligence began to emerge a long time ago:
- philosophers thought of knowing the inner world of man
- psychologists studied human thinking
- mathematicians engaged in calculations
Soon, the first computers were created, which made it possible to perform calculations overtaking a person in speed. Then scientists began to ask the question: where is the limit of the capabilities of computers and can they reach the level of man?
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Alan Turing Test
Alan Turing – an English scientist, a pioneer of computer technology, wrote an article “Can a machine think?”, Which described a method that will help determine at what point a computer can be compared to a person. This method is called – Turing test.
The essence of the method is to first answer the questions of the computer, then to the questions of another person, and without knowing who asked him the questions. If, when answering computer questions, a person did not suspect that this was a machine, then passing the Turing test can be considered successful, as well as the fact that the computer is artificial intelligence.
Thus, if a computer exhibits similar human behavior in any natural situation and is able to maintain a dialogue with a person, then we can say that this is artificial intelligence. Another proposed method for determining whether a machine is intellectual is its creativity and ability to feel.
There are many different approaches to the study and understanding of artificial intelligence.
The character approach was the first in the digital age of machines. After creating the Lisp symbolic computation language, its authors set about implementing intelligence. Character approach use weakly formalized representations. So far, only people are capable of performing intellectual work and tasks related to creativity. The work of computers in this direction is biased and, in fact, cannot be performed without human intervention.
Character calculations helped create rules for solving problems in the process of executing a computer program. However, it became possible to solve only the simplest tasks, and when any complex task appears, it is necessary to reconnect to the person. Thus, such systems do not allow us to call them intelligent since their capabilities do not allow us to solve the difficulties that arise and improve already knowing ways to solve problems to solve new ones.
The logical approach is based on reasoning modeling and the use of logical programming language. For example, the Prolog programming language is based on a set of inference rules without hard sequential actions to achieve a result.
The agent-based approach is based on methods that help the intellect survive in the environment to achieve certain results. The computer perceives its environment and acts on it using the set methods.
The hybrid approach includes expert rules that can be created by neural networks and generating rules using statistical training.
There is such a direction in the study of artificial intelligence as modeling reasoning. This direction includes the creation of symbolic systems for setting goals and solving them. The task should be translated into mathematical form. However, she still does not have an algorithm to solve because of the complexity. Therefore, the modeling of reasoning contains the proof of theorems, decision making, planning, forecasting, etc.
Natural Language Processing
Another important area of artificial intelligence is the processing of natural language, which is the analysis and processing of texts in a language understandable to humans. The purpose of this area is the processing of natural language for the independent acquisition of knowledge. The source of information may be the text entered into the program or received from the Internet.
Presentation and use of knowledge
Knowledge engineering is the direction of obtaining knowledge from information, its systematization and further use for solving various problems. Using special knowledge bases, expert systems obtain data for the process of finding solutions to assigned tasks.
One of the basic requirements for artificial intelligence is the ability of the machine to learn independently without the intervention of a teacher. Machine learning includes image recognition tasks: recognition of characters, text, and speech. This also includes computer vision associated with robotics.
Biological AI modeling
There is such a direction as a quasi-biological paradigm, which is also called Biocomputing. This direction in artificial intelligence is studying the development of computers and technologies using living organisms and biological components – biocomputers.
The field of robotics is closely related to artificial intelligence. Artificial intelligence features are also necessary for robots to perform many different tasks. For example, to navigate and determine your location, study objects and plan your movement.
Artificial Intelligence Applications
Artificial intelligence is created to solve problems from various fields:
- Intelligent systems for education and leisure.
- Synthesis and recognition of text and human speech is used in customer service systems.
- Pattern recognition systems are used in security systems, in optical and acoustic recognition, medical diagnostics, target determination systems.
- In computer games, AI systems are used to calculate the game strategy, simulate the behavior of characters, finding the path in space.
- Algorithmic trading and decision making systems.
- Financial systems for consulting and financial management.
- Robots used in industry to solve complex routine tasks: robots for patient care, consultant robots, as well as those involved in activities that are dangerous to human life: rescue robots, miner robots.
- Human resources management and recruiting, viewing and ranking candidates, predicting employee success.
- Recognition and filtering systems for spam in email.
- These are far from all areas where artificial intelligence can be applied.
Now the creation of artificial intelligence is one of the important tasks of man. However, so far there is no single point of view on what can be considered intellect and what is not. Many questions raise controversy and doubt. Is it possible to create an intellectual mind that will understand and solve people’s problems? A mind not devoid of emotions and with abilities inherent in a living organism. Until the time has come when we will see it.